Kettle in England before 978

787 The first Vikings land at Dorcester.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

802 Accession of Egbert. He learnt warfare at the court of Charlemagne. He became King of Wessex in 827 and achieved submission of Mercia and other kingdoms 833-835 (East Anglia and the north were still independent). There were some Danish ships in Charmouth, Dorset, but the main Danish raids were in France as the pickings there were easier. Ruled with his son Ethelwulf from 854 then resigned, amicably it appears.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

839 Resignation of Egbert. Accession of Ethelwulf. He had good advisers; Ealstan (practical) and Swithin (spiritual). He kept the country united and the Danes at bay though they overwintered in Thanet in 853.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

c850? A translation of a paragraph about Kettle the Christian from 'Historia Britonum' which was written by the Welsh historian Nennius c850AD

858 Death of Ethelwulf. Accession of Ethelbald. No Danish trouble. A hereditary weakness probably appeared in this generation.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

860 Death of Ethelbald. Accession of Ethelbert. Danish attacks intensify - In 865 'ships without number' arrive in East Anglia. The Danes overwintered there and then marched north to York.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

866 Ethelbert dies. Accession of Ethelred I. In 869 the Danes gut Bardney monastery, battle at Kesteven, Croyland Abbey, Medhamstede (Peterborough), Huntingdon, Ely, and Hoxne. A major battle is won by the English, led by Ethelred and Alfred in the Vale of the White Horse. The king of East Anglia at this time is called Edmund.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

869 In the autumn part of the Danish army moved south from York, (which they had already captured), mostly by road, crossed Mercia without hindrance and settled down to winter quarters in Thetford. They were attacked by the local alderman Ulfketel, who was killed in the battle; eventually the Danes won complete victory.
Source: The Warrior kings of Saxon England - Ralph Whitlock

871 Ethelred I dies, Accession of Alfred. In 871 the Danes win and Alfred buys peace for five years. Literary and craft skills are encouraged. In 876 some Danes settle. In 885 East Anglian Danes broke the treaty. Alfred has no claim to East Anglia, where ?Guthrum? is king.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

875 The Danish army split, part going north and the larger part to Cambridge, where that camped for a year. The cambridge army was under the leadership of Guthrum, Oscytel and Anund. By this time Vikings were starting to settle in East Anglia, though the fighting and plunder with King Alfred in Mercia continued.
Source: The Warrior kings of Saxon England - Ralph Whitlock

896 Vikings had settled East Anglia and Northumbria and other areas had repulsed them.
Source: The Warrior kings of Saxon England - Ralph Whitlock

bef 901Alfred made a treaty with the Danes, allowing them to live peacefully in England north of the Roman road called Watling Street which runs from London to Chester. Soon the Danes broke the peace, raiding and burning farms on the border.
Source: Kings and Queens of England - L. Du Garde Peache - A Ladybird book

900 Alfred dies. Accession of Edward I (The Elder). His younger brother stirred up rebellion in East Anglia - the book is not clear whether this is against Edward or the Danes. Edward attacked East Anglia and the Danes submitted.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

902 Alfred's grandson 'enticed the army in East Anglia to rebellion' The Danes won the battle and Ethelwald died. A peace treaty was signed.
Source: The Warrior kings of Saxon England - Ralph Whitlock

903 In this year the æthling Æthelwold induced the [Danish] army in East Anglia to ... harried all over Mercia until they reached Cricklade ... across the Thames ... Braydon. But King Edward ... harried all their land between the Dykes and the Ouse [Devil's Dyke and Fleam Dyke] ... The Danish army overtook them there. King Edhric [of East Anglia] was killed and ... Oscetel the hold [a Scandinavian title applied to a class of nobleman with a wergild double that of a thegn.]
Source: Anglo Saxon Chronicle

912 Edward built two forts, one each side of the river Lea at Hertford.
Source: The Warrior kings of Saxon England - Ralph Whitlock

c914 Edward advanced in Eastern England. Alarmed, the Danish earl of Bedford, Thurketil, offered his submission to Edward. The Danes were now losing because of the fortified burghs, they had no central leader and they preferred quick plunder over persistent attack.
Source: The Warrior kings of Saxon England - Ralph Whitlock

914 King Edward went to Buckingham with his army ... and Earl Thurcetel came and accepted him as his lord.
Source: Anglo Saxon Chronicle

916 Earl Thurcetel went across the sea to France, along with the men who were willing to serve him, with King Edward's peace and support.
Source: Anglo Saxon Chronicle

c917 The Danish army in East Anglia swore union with Edward.
Source: The Warrior kings of Saxon England - Ralph Whitlock

924 Edward I dies. Accession of Athelstan. England is prosperous; embassies are sent to Harald Fairhair, the first king of a united Norway. Harald Fairhair's son is brought up at the English court. Literacy is common.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

924-939Athelstan won a great victory over them (the Danes) at a place called Brananburg.
Source: Kings and Queens of England - L. Du Garde Peache - A Ladybird book

934 King Athelstan summoned provincial commanders including Danes from East Anglia.
Source: The Warrior kings of Saxon England - Ralph Whitlock

939 Athelstan dies. Accession of Edmund I. The Danes of East Anglia are attacked by Norsemen.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

939-946 Edmund the Elder won from the Danes the Five Boroughs of Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham, Stamford and Derby.
Source: Kings and Queens of England - L. Du Garde Peache - A Ladybird book

940 Danes and Norwegians were bitter enemies. Norsemen controlled York and Ireland, Danes controlled Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham, Stamford, Derby) The Danes were on good terms with the tolerant English kings, frequented the court etc.
Source: The Warrior kings of Saxon England - Ralph Whitlock

946 Edmund I murdered. Accession of Edred. Fought and eventually defeated Eric Bloodaxe, the Norse king of York. In Norway, the son of Harald Fairhair is deposed because he is too bloodthirsty.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

946-955 He (King Edred) chose the cleverest man in England, the Abbot Dunstan to be his adviser.
Source: Kings and Queens of England - L. Du Garde Peache - A Ladybird book

951-955 ... Bishop Oscetel is to receive 400 pounds and keep it at the see of Dorcester ... 2000 mancuses of gold are to be taken and minted into mancuses [a ceremonial gold coin] and the archbishop is to receive one part, the second Bishop Ælfsige, the third Bishop Oscetel and they are to distribute them throughout the Bishoprics for the sake of God and the redemption of my soul.
Source: Old English will of King Eadred

946-955 According to a tradition related to Orderic Vitalis at Crowland in the early twelfth century, the abbey had been refounded by Thurketel already in Edred's reign.
Source: The Conversion of the English Danelaw by D Whitelock

955 Edred dies. Accession of Edwy. He antagonised the church in the person of Dunstan, so got a bad press. He died young, but we don't know how.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

955-957? Edwy ... quarelled with Dunstan and banished him.
Source: Kings and Queens of England - L. Du Garde Peache - A Ladybird book

956 ... to my beloved bishop, Oscetel, in inheritance, part of my land at a place called Southwell, 20 hides with pastures, meadows, woods and all things great or small duly belonging to it. He is to possess it profitably for as long as he lives and after his death to leave it to whomever he sees fit, whether to persons known or unknown. This aforesaid donation of the king is to be [free] from every worldly hindrance apart from these three: preparing of bridges, and the construction of fortresses and military service. [Here was founded Southwell minster] These are the villages which belong to Southwell with sake and with soke [rights of private jurisdiction] Farnsfield, Kirklington, Normanton, Upton, Morton, Fiskerton, Gibsmere, Bleasby, Goverton, Halloughton, Halam ... I Oscetel have corroborated
Source: Grant by King Eadwig of Southwell to Oscetel Archbishop of York
'I Oscetel have corroborated' is inserted by a copyist after 958


957? Edwy dies. Accession of Edgar. Recalled Dunstan and restored monasteries. He exacted fierce penalties for crimes so there was very little unrest. The country was prosperous.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

958 ... I Oscetel, bishop [of Dorcester] have consented and subscribed.
Source: Grant by King Edgar to his thegn Ealhstan of land at Staunton, Herefordshire and a house at Hereford.

969 ... I, Oscetel, have speedily consented ...
Source: Grant by King Edgar

bef 971 Archbishop Oscytel owned land in Beeby, Lincs and his kinsman Thurcytel, Abbot of Bedford possessed estates in Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire.

The conversion of the English Danelaw by D Whitelock

971 In this year died Archbishop Oscetel who was first consecrated as a diocesan bishop of Dorchester and afterwards consecrated archbishop of York by the consent of King ædred and of all his councillors. And he was bishop for 22 years and he died on All Saints eve, ten days before Martinmas, at Thame. And his kinsman, Abbot Thurcetel, took the bishop's body to Bedford because he was abbot there at that time. [Thurcetel was afterwards abbot of Crowland.]
Source: Anglo Saxon Chronicle

aft 971 Sale by Abbot Thurkytel to Bishop Æthelwold of Doddington and half Weremere in order to obtain the land at Bebui which Bishop Oscytel had left to Æthelwold. Among the estates given by Thurketel to Crowland, according to Oderic, is Beeby, Leics. [Hee also gave Wellingborough, Elmington, Wothorpe in Northants and Cottenham, Oakington in Cambs.]
Source: Historia Eliensis (Book II Cap 22)
D Whitelock in the 'Conversion of the English Danelaw' says that Abbot Thurkytel is mistakenly called the Abbot of Ramsey.


aft 971 Abbot Thurkytel after he was expelled from Bedford, asked Bishop Ælfstan of London [961-995/6] and his clergy to admit him to their confraternity. Though this was at first refused, they agreed when he gave them an estate at Milton which they afterwards exchanged with Ely.
Source: Historia Eliensis (Book II Cap 31)
D Whitelock in the 'Conversion of the English Danelaw' gives this as evidence that Abbot Thurkytel could not have refounded Crowland until after 971 (see the tradition of 946-955)


975 Edgar dies. Accession of Edward II (The Martyr). Dunstan was powerful. Edward was given to violent outbursts of rage.
Source: The House of Wessex & Danish Kings (I didn't note the author)

Last update
9 May 1999
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